Planetary-scale teleconnections and tropical-extratropical interactions contribute greatly to the atmospheric predictability on the sub-seasonal to seasonal (S2S) timescale. The existence of strong tropical forcing of both the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) provides the possibility of important windows of opportunity for skillful S2S predictions through teleconnections. This chapter discusses the tropical influence on the extratropical weather and climate on the S2S timescale, the extratropical influence on tropical convection and the MJO, and basic dynamical processes of extratropical atmospheric response to tropical thermal forcing. Forcing of extratropical waves through two-way interactions and a three-dimensional (3D) instability theory are also discussed. An example is given on diagnosing intraseasonal extratropical influence on the tropics.
|Title of host publication||Sub-Seasonal to Seasonal Prediction|
|Subtitle of host publication||The Gap Between Weather and Climate Forecasting|
|Editors||Andrew W Robertson, Frédéric Vitart|
|Place of Publication||Amsterdam Netherlands|
|Number of pages||98|
|Publication status||Published - 2019|
Lin, H., Frederiksen, J., Straus, D. M., & Stan, C. (2019). Tropical-Extratropical Interactions and Teleconnections. In A. W. Robertson, & F. Vitart (Eds.), Sub-Seasonal to Seasonal Prediction: The Gap Between Weather and Climate Forecasting (pp. 143-556). Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-811714-9.00007-3