Trends in oral anticoagulant prescribing in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A population-based study in the UK

Hassan Alwafi, Li Wei, Abdallah Y. Naser, Pajaree Mongkhon, Gary Tse, Kenneth K.C. Man, J. Simon Bell, Jenni Ilomaki, Gang Fang, Ian C.K. Wong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


Objective To evaluate oral anticoagulant (OAC) prescribing trends in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the UK from 2001 to 2015. Design A cross-sectional drug utilisation study. Setting Electronic health records from The Health Improvement Network primary care database in the UK. Participants Individuals with T2DM who received a record of OAC prescription. Outcome measures The prescribing trends of OAC medications in individuals with T2DM were examined from 2001 to 2015, stratified by age, gender and therapeutic classifications. Results A total of 361 635 individuals with T2DM were identified, of whom 36 570 were prescribed OAC from 2001 to 2015. The prevalence of OAC prescribing increased by 50.0%, from 1781 individuals receiving OAC prescriptions (IROACP) (4.4 (95% CI 4.2 to 4.6) per 100 persons) in 2001, to 17 070 IROACP (6.6 (95% CI 6.5 to 6.7) per 100 persons) in 2015. The prevalence of warfarin prescribing decreased by 14.0%, from 1761 individuals receiving warfarin prescriptions (IRWP) (98.9 (95% CI 98.4 to 99.4) per 100 persons) in 2001, to 14 533 IRWP (85.1 (95% CI 84.6 to 85.7) per 100 persons) in 2015. This corresponded with increased prescribing of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), from 18 individuals receiving DOAC prescriptions (IRDOACP) (0.1 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.23) per 100 persons) in 2010, to 3016 IRDOACP (17.6 (95% CI 17.1 to 18.2) per 100 persons) in 2015, during the same period. Conclusions Prescribing of OACs in individuals with T2DM increased from 2001 to 2015. Since the introduction of DOACs, there has been a clear shift in prescribing towards these agents. Future studies are needed to assess the safety of coadministration of OAC medications and antidiabetic therapy with T2DM.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere034573
Number of pages8
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2020


  • anticoagulation
  • diabetes & endocrinology
  • epidemiology

Cite this