Trends in glycaemic control and drug use in males and females with type 2 diabetes: Results of the Australian National Diabetes Audit from 2013 to 2019

Angie S. Xiang, Naomi Szwarcbard, Danijela Gasevic, Arul Earnest, Anthony Pease, Sof Andrikopoulos, Natalie Wischer, Wendy Davis, Sophia Zoungas

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3 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: To investigate temporal changes in glycaemic control and the use of antihyperglycaemic therapies in females and males with type 2 diabetes from 2013 to 2019. Methods: Data from adult patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 11 930; 44.9% females, mean [SD] age of 62.9 [12.9] years) were analysed from the 2013 to 2019 biennial cross-sectional Australian National Diabetes Audit. Results: Mean HbA1c remained similar throughout the years examined and between the sexes (7.8%-8.3%, 62-67 mmol/mol; P >.05). The number of antihyperglycaemic agents used by both sexes increased from 2013 to 2019 (P <.001), with more agents used by males (P =.014). From 2013 to 2019, there were increasing proportions of both sexes using dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (females: 11.7%-25.7%, P =.045; males: 11.6%-29.5%, P =.036) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (females: 5.9%-15.3%; males: 4.9%-11.1%; P =.043 for both). Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors were not available in 2013; however, their use increased substantially from 2015 to 2019 in both females (4.9%-26.3%, P =.013) and males (4.7%-32.2%, P =.019). Conclusions: From 2013 to 2019, mean HbA1c levels remained unchanged despite a concurrent increase in the number of antihyperglycaemic medications used. Overall, there was a trend towards preferencing newer agents with some differences in treatment regimens relating to sex and renal function.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2603-2613
Number of pages11
JournalDiabetes, Obesity and Metabolism
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021


  • antihyperglycaemic
  • diabetes
  • eGFR
  • HbA1c
  • pharmacotherapy
  • prescribing
  • sex
  • trends

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