Trends in advanced practice and specialisation in the global pharmacy workforce: a synthesis of country case studies

Lina R. Bader, Ian Bates, Kirsten Galbraith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives: This study aims to gain a better understanding of the drivers and barriers to the development of advanced practice and specialised systems around the world. Through the synthesis of in-depth country case studies, this paper aims to identify current models of advanced practice and specialisation in pharmacy and illustrate trends, drivers and barriers in policy development. This is the first analysis of its kind to examine pharmacy specialisation and advanced practice in this depth from a global perspective. Methods: A synthesis of country case studies was carried out. The country case study template was reviewed and approved by an expert working group drawn from a cross section of International Pharmaceutical Federations (FIP) experts and special-interest groups. FIP member organisations and country-level contacts from regulatory, professional and government agencies and universities were approached to contribute to the case study database. The data were collected between January and May 2015. Descriptive comparative analysis and qualitative thematic analysis were both used to analyse the data. Key findings: Case study submissions were received from 17 countries. The findings demonstrate that the pace and depth of change in advanced practice and specialisation are occurring at different rates across countries and regions, although many countries appear to be moving towards recognising advanced and specialised practice of pharmacists and developing frameworks and/or formalised recognition systems. Conclusions: Country-specific examples are useful in identifying factors that may contribute to the rate at which developments in advanced practice and specialisation in pharmacy are taking place and enable progress in around the world.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)182-190
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020


  • advanced practice
  • professional development
  • scope of practice
  • specialisation

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