Translation, validation, and adaptation of the Time Use Diary from English into the Malay language for use in Malaysia

Siti Noraini Asmuri, Ted Brown, Lisa J. Broom

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Valid translations of time use scales are needed by occupational therapists for use in different cross-cultural contexts to gather relevant data to inform practice and research. The purpose of this study was to describe the process of translating, adapting, and validating the Time Use Diary from its current English language edition into a Malay language version. Five steps of the cross-cultural adaptation process were completed: (i) translation from English into the Malay language by a qualified translator, (ii) synthesis of the translated Malay version, (iii) backtranslation from Malay to English by three bilingual speakers, (iv) expert committee review and discussion, and (v) pilot testing of the Malay language version with two participant groups. The translated version was found to be a reliable and valid tool identifying changes and potential challenges in the time use of older adults. This provides Malaysian occupational therapists with a useful tool for gathering time use data in practice settings and for research purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)289-308
Number of pages21
JournalOccupational Therapy in Health Care
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2016


  • Assessment and evaluation
  • daily activities
  • time use

Cite this