This paper investigates the effects of price and service changes on transit ridership. The concept of elasticity is introduced and the traditional methods for estimating elasticities are discussed. In this paper an extra dimension is added by investigating short and long term elasticities. Time series analysis, developed by Box and Jenkins is chosen for the analysis. The Box and Jenkins methodology is applied to a monthly time series of average weekday ridership on the Chicago Transit Authority (CTA) rail system. Four categories of explanatory variables are investigated: fare on the CTA rail system, service provided on the CTA rail system, cost of car trips and weather effects. The effects of gas prices and rail service were found to be significant; however the results indicate a twelve month delay before service changes influence ridership. The effect of transit fares was found to be insignificant, indicating that both the short and long term fare elasticities are zero.