Interleukin (IL)-11 signaling is involved in various processes, including epithelial intestinal cell regeneration and embryo implantation. IL-11 signaling is initiated upon binding of IL-11 to IL-11R1 or IL-11R2, two IL-11α-receptor splice variants, and gp130. Here, we show that IL-11 signaling via IL-11R1/2:gp130 complexes occurs on both the apical and basolateral sides of polarized cells, whereas IL-6 signaling via IL-6R:gp130 complexes is restricted to the basolateral side. We show that basolaterally supplied IL-11 is transported and released to the apical extracellular space via transcytosis in an IL-11R1-dependent manner. By contrast, IL-6R and IL-11R2 do not promote transcytosis. In addition, we show that transcytosis of IL-11 is dependent on the intracellular domain of IL-11R1 and that synthetic transfer of the intracellular domain of IL-11R1 to IL-6R promotes transcytosis of IL-6. Our data define IL-11R as a cytokine receptor with transcytotic activity by which IL-11 and IL-6:soluble IL-6R complexes are transported across cellular barriers.