Track structure modeling in liquid water: a review of the Geant4-DNA very low energy extension of the Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit

M A Bernal Rodriguez, M-C Bordage, J M C Brown, M Davidkova, E Delage, Z El Bitar, S A Enger, Z Francis, S Guatelli, V N Ivanchenko, M Karamitros, I Kyriakou, L Maigne, S Meylan, K Murakami, S Okada, H Payno, Y Perrot, I Petrovic, Q T PhamA Ristic-Fira, T Sasaki, V Stepan, H N Tran, C Villagrasa, S Incerti

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280 Citations (Scopus)


Understanding the fundamental mechanisms involved in the induction of biological damage by ionizing radiation remains a major challenge of today's radiobiology research. The Monte Carlo simulation of physical, physicochemical and chemical processes involved may provide a powerful tool for the simulation of early damage induction. The Geant4-DNA extension of the general purpose Monte Carlo Geant4 simulation toolkit aims to provide the scientific community with an open source access platform for the mechanistic simulation of such early damage. This paper presents the most recent review of the Geant4-DNA extension, as available to Geant4 users since June 2015 (release 10.2 Beta). In particular, the review includes the description of new physical models for the description of electron elastic and inelastic interactions in liquid water, as well as new examples dedicated to the simulation of physicochemical and chemical stages of water radiolysis. Several implementations of geometrical models of biological targets are presented as well, and the list of Geant4-DNA examples is described.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)861-874
Number of pages14
JournalPhysica Medica
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 2015


  • Geant4-DNA
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Monte Carlo
  • Radiobiology
  • Radiolysis

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