Tracing metacognition by highlighting and tagging to predict recall and transfer

P. H. Winne, J. C. Nesbit, I. Ram, Z. Marzouk, J. Vytasek, D. Samadi, J. Stewart-Alonso, M. Rakovic, A. Liaqat, M. P-C. Lin, A. Savoji

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference PaperResearchpeer-review


When learners highlight or tag content, they metacognitively monitor information to select and mark it. From a levels-of-processing framework, standards used in metacognitive monitoring could affect learning. We examined effects on recall and transfer of different metacognitive standards - free highlighting expressing a genetic "importance" standard, tagging according to structures of text (definition, explanation, example) and tagging for utility of information (required vs. helpful for understanding). Information marked based on any metacognitive standard was twice as likely to be recalled as unmarked information. Recall was lower when learners metacognitively monitored text structures. Transfer was unaffected by standards used for metacognitive monitoring. While standards applied to metacognitively monitor information may elevate levels of processing, that does not necessarily engage transfer appropriate processing.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationAmerican Educational Research Association - 2017 Annual Meeting
EditorsAngela E. Arzubiaga, James Earl Davis
Place of PublicationWashington DC USA
PublisherAmerican Educational Research Association (AERA)
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes
EventAmerican Education Research Assocation Annual Meeting 2017 - San Antonio, United States of America
Duration: 27 Apr 20171 May 2017 (Website)


ConferenceAmerican Education Research Assocation Annual Meeting 2017
Country/TerritoryUnited States of America
CitySan Antonio
Internet address

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