Purpose: Choroid plexus carcinomas are pediatric tumors with poor survival rates and a strong, but poorly understood, association with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS). Currently, with lack of biologic predictors, most children are treated with aggressive chemoradiation protocols. Patients and Methods: We established a multi-institutional tissue and clinical database, which enabled the analysis of specific alterations of the TP53 tumor suppressor and its modifiers in choroid plexus tumors (CPTs). We conducted high-resolution copy-number analysis to correlate these genetic parameters with family history and outcome. Results: We studied 64 patients with CPTs. All individuals with germline TP53 mutations fulfilled LFS criteria, whereas all patients not meeting these criteria harbored wild-type TP53 (P < .001). TP53 mutations were found in 50% of choroid plexus carcinomas (CPCs). Additionally, two sequence variants known to confer TP53 dysfunction, TP53 codon72 and MDM2 SNP309, coexisted in the majority of TP53 wild-type CPCs (92%) and not in TP53 mutated CPC (P = .04), which suggests a complementary mechanism of TP53 dysfunction in the absence of a TP53 mutation. High-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis revealed extremely high total structural variation (TSV) in TP53-mutated CPC tumor genomes compared with TP53 wild-type tumors and choroid plexus papillomas (CPPs; P = .006 and .004, respectively). Moreover, high TSV was associated with significant risk of progression (P < .001). Five-year survival rates for patients with TP53-immunopositive and -immunonegative CPCs were 0% and 82 (± 9%), respectively (P < .001). Furthermore, 14 of 16 patients with TP53 wild-type CPCs are alive without having received radiation therapy. Conclusion: Patients with CPC who have low tumor TSV and absence of TP53 dysfunction have a favorable prognosis and can be successfully treated without radiation therapy.