Towards understanding the design of bodily integration

Florian ‘Floyd’ Mueller, Pedro Lopes, Josh Andres, Richard Byrne, Nathan Semertzidis, Zhuying Li, Jarrod Knibbe, Stefan Greuter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


In the field of human-computer interaction, the term “integration” describes an emergent paradigm in which the human and the computer are tightly coupled. Our previous research has contributed to this paradigm through the design of “bodily integrated” systems, where the human body and the computing machinery are coupled in a way that allows bidirectional actuation. In this article, we build on this design research: we identify gaps in knowledge regarding bodily integration design and propose, in response, two key dimensions along which bodily integration systems can be categorized: bodily agency and bodily ownership. Conceiving each dimension from low to high allows us to define a four-quadrant design space that highlights key user experiences of bodily integration: Super-Body, Tele-Body, Chauffeured-Body, and Possessed-Body. We demonstrate how this design space can be used to analyze bodily integration design using three of our own bodily integration systems as illustrative examples. We also identify seven design strategies for interaction designers to design future bodily integration systems: turn-taking, safety, ease-in, movement, sensations & perceptions, personalization, and bystanders. Ultimately, we hope to advance the emergent integration paradigm through a body-centric design perspective.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102643
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Human Computer Studies
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021


  • bodily integration
  • embodiment
  • exertion
  • Human-computer integration

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