Miniaturisation is revolutionary to high-throughput proteomics. These technologies have gained much interest in the past decade, as they allow for sensitive parallel analysis of small amounts of biological materials. This review describes the state of the art of proteomics-on-chip, with a particular focus on the fundamental proteomics-on-chip challenges. The important role of bio-interfacial interactions and strategies to control them are presented. Various coating methodologies for on-chip protein/peptide separation are reviewed to provide an overview of the principles of protein-resistant and protein immobilisation coatings, and their effectiveness.