In this study, we conceptualized four types of feedback seeking about self and others (i.e., self-positive, self-negative, other-positive, and other-negative) based on their foci (i.e., self or peers) and nature (i.e., positive or negative), as derived from goal orientation theory. In a series of field studies, we found that these four types of feedback seeking were distinct from each other. A learning orientation was positively related to self-negative, self-positive, and other-positive feedback seeking. A performance-approach orientation was positively related to self-positive and other-negative feedback seeking. On further examining the performance impacts of the four types of feedback-seeking, we found that self-negative feedback seeking was positively related to job performance, role clarity, and social integration. Self-positive feedback seeking was negatively related, whereas other-positive feedback seeking was positively related to job performance.
- feedback seeking
- goal orientation