Families of innate immune receptors serve as the bodies primary defence system by recognising and rapidly responding to infection by microorganisms or to endogenous danger signals and initiating inflammatory processes. Whilst Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were the first family to be discovered, important and exciting discoveries continue to emerge into the molecular mechanisms that control their activation and regulation. Herein, I will provide an overview of TLR activation and their downstream signalling cascades, and discuss some of the recent findings concerning the assembly of a TLR oligomeric signalling platform, known as the Myddosome. Further, a brief examination of the importance of crosstalk between multiple TLRs or between TLRs and other innate immune receptors for appropriate and coordinated immune responses will be presented. Finally, I will discuss the importance of mechanisms that regulate TLRs with a focus on the role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in modulating transcriptional responses downstream of TLRs.
- Innate immunity
- Toll-like receptors (TLRs)