Toll-like Receptor 9 Induced Dendritic Cell Activation Promotes Anti-Myeloperoxidase Autoimmunity and Glomerulonephritis

Sharon L. Ford, Kim M. O’Sullivan, A. Richard Kitching, Stephen R. Holdsworth, Poh Yi Gan, Shaun A. Summers

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) is intricately linked with infections. Toll-like receptors (TLR) provide a potential link between infection and anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) autoimmunity. TLR9 ligation has been shown to promote anti-MPO autoimmunity and glomerular vasculitis in murine MPO-AAV. This study investigates dendritic cell TLR9 ligation in murine experimental anti-MPO glomerulonephritis. We analyzed autoimmune responses to MPO following transfer of TLR9 stimulated, MPO pulsed dendritic cells and kidney injury following a sub-nephritogenic dose of sheep anti-mouse glomerular basement membrane globulin. TLR9 ligation enhanced dendritic cell activation upregulating CD40 and CD80 expression, promoting systemic anti-MPO autoimmunity and T cell recall responses and exacerbating kidney injury. CD40 upregulation by TLR9 was critical for the induction of nephritogenic autoimmunity. The presence of DEC205, which transports the TLR9 ligand to TLR9 located in the endosome, also promoted kidney injury. This confirms TLR9 mediated dendritic cell activation as a mechanism of anti-MPO autoimmunity in AAV and further defines the link between infection and the generation of MPO specific autoimmune inflammation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1339
Number of pages17
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023


  • ANCA associated vasculitis
  • autoimmunity
  • dendritic cell
  • glomerulonephritis
  • kidney injury
  • myeloperoxidase
  • TLR9

Cite this