Toll-like receptor 4 Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile polymorphisms and typhoid susceptibility in Asian Malay population in Malaysia

Saatheeyavaane Bhuvanendran, Hani M. Hussin, Lila P. Meran, Amy A. Anthony, Leilei Zhang, Lauranell H. Burch, Kia K. Phua, Asma Ismail, Prabha Balaram

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Typhoid fever is a major health problem with frequent outbreaks in Kelantan, Malaysia. Prevalence of TLR4 gene polymorphisms varies with ethnic groups (0-20%) and predisposean individual to gram-negative infections. The prevalence rate of TLR4 Asp299Gly and Thr399lle polymorphisms in the Malay population or the influence of these on typhoid fever susceptibility is not yet reported.250 normal and 304 susceptible Malay individuals were investigated for these polymorphisms using allele-specific PCR and analysed for its association with typhoid fever susceptibility.The total prevalence of polymorphisms in the normal population was 4.8% in comparison to 12.5% in the susceptible population (p = 0.002). An increased frequency of both polymorphisms was observed in the susceptible population (p < 0.01) with no homozygous mutants observed. Co-segregation was observed in 2% of controls and 3.6% of the susceptible individuals.This study, for the first time, reports the prevalence of TLR4 gene polymorphisms in the Malay population and suggests that these polymorphisms confer a higher risk for typhoid, infection. The higher incidence of typhoid fever in Kelantan could be attributed to the higher percentage of Malays (95%) in this state. In order to reduce the incidence of this disease, people with these polymorphisms, can be prioritised for prophylactic strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)844-851
Number of pages8
JournalMicrobes and Infection
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2011
Externally publishedYes


  • Malay ethnicity
  • TLR4 polymorphisms
  • Typhoid fever

Cite this