Human thyroid peroxidase (TPO), is an important enzyme responsible for the biosynthesis of thyroid hormones and is a major autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) such as the destructive Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Although the structure of TPO has yet to be determined, its extracellular domain consists of three regions that exhibit a high degree of sequence similarity to domains of known three-dimensional structure: the myeloperoxidase (MPO)-like domain, complement control protein (CCP)-like domain, and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like domain. Homology models of TPO can therefore be constructed, providing some structural context to its known function, as well as facilitating the mapping of regions that are responsible for its autoantigenicity. In this review, we highlight recent progress in this area, in particular how a molecular modelling approach has advanced the visualisation and interpretation of epitope mapping studies for TPO, facilitating the dissection of the interplay between TPO protein structure, function, and autoantigenticity.
- Hashimoto's thyroiditis
- thyroid peroxidise