Thrombotic management of antiphospholipid syndrome: Towards novel targeted therapies

Md Asiful Islam, Fahmida Alam, Kah Keng Wong, Mohammad Amjad Kamal, Siew Hua Gan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity with persistent levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). The development of thrombosis in APS is mediated by aPLs and contributes to the high mortality rate in APS patients. However, although APS has been reported for more than 30 years, there has been no optimal regimen for its prevention or for the management of thrombosis, mainly because the mainstay treatment strategies for managing APS are not targeted towards aPL-mediated thrombotic pathophysiology. Instead, the treatments commonly used are aimed at general thrombotic disorders. Warfarin is the most commonly used vitamin K antagonist (VKA), in addition to anti-platelet medications, such as aspirin and clopidogrel. Over the last decade, novel non-VKA oral anticoagulants, including rivaroxaban, apixaban and dabigatran, as well as immunomodulatory agents, such as rituximab, eculizumab, hydroxychloroquine, statins and sirolimus, have also been used. In this review, we discuss the current treatment strategies and future treatment outlook for thrombotic APS.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)313-326
Number of pages14
JournalCurrent Vascular Pharmacology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Anti-platelet agents
  • Anticoagulant
  • Antiphospholipid antibodies
  • Antiphospholipid syndrome
  • Thrombosis
  • Treatment

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