Threshold and saturation pressures of baroreflex-mediated myocardial interstitial acetylcholine release in rats

Toru Kawada, Yusuke Sata, Tsuyoshi Akiyama, Shuji Shimizu, Takashi Sonobe, James T. Pearson, Masaru Sugimachi

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Cardiac microdialysis allows the assessment of cardiac efferent vagal nerve activity from myocardial interstitial acetylcholine (ACh) levels with minimal influence on the neural control of the heart; however, a total picture of the baroreflex-mediated myocardial interstitial ACh release including the threshold and saturation pressures has yet to be quantified. In eight anesthetized Wistar–Kyoto rats, we implanted microdialysis probes in the left ventricular free wall and measured the myocardial interstitial ACh release simultaneously with efferent sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) during a carotid sinus baroreceptor pressure input between 60 and 180 mm Hg. The baroreflex-mediated ACh release approximated a positive sigmoid curve, and its threshold and saturation pressures were not significantly different from those of an inverse sigmoid curve associated with the baroreflex-mediated SNA response (threshold: 94.3 ± 8.6 vs. 99.3 ± 6.0 mm Hg; saturation: 150.0 ± 10.3 vs. 158.8 ± 5.8 mm Hg). The sympathetic and vagal systems have certain levels of activities across most of the normal pressure range.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102657
Number of pages5
JournalAutonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical
Publication statusPublished - May 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Acetylcholine
  • Carotid sinus baroreflex
  • Open-loop analysis
  • Sympathetic nerve activity

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