The structural and optical stability of nanoparticles directly influences their applications. The shape evolution of silver nanoplates synthesized in the presence of bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) could be effectively frozen using thiols in aqueous solution. These thiols (e.g., 1-hexanethiol, 1-octanethiol, 1 -dodecanethiol, and 1-hexadecanethiol) exhibit stronger surface affinity on the silver crystalline surfaces. This is evidenced from both the unchanged shape/size of nanoplates and their unshifted plasmon resonances in optical absorption. To quantitatively explain the thiol-frozen shape evolution mechanism of silver nanoplates at molecular scale, molecular dynamics simulation was performed. The results show that these thiols exhibit larger interaction energies than AOT molecules on the silver atomic surfaces and hence freeze the shape evolution of silver nanoparticles. This thiol-frozen strategy would not only be useful for stabilizing nanoparticles but would also allow the introduction of a wide range of surface chemical functionalities to the nanoparticles for potential applications in nanosensors.