Background: The burden of therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia (tAML)/therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (tMDS) in Australia has not been characterised. Aims: To provide insights into the incidence, associated cancers, latency and survival outcomes of patients with tAML/tMDS in Victoria, Australia, based on a state-wide cancer registry and to assess if these features are different in tAML/tMDS compared with de novo AML/MDS. Methods: We analysed adults aged ≥20 years at diagnosis of AML/MDS reported to the Victorian Cancer Registry (VCR) between 2003 and 2014. Results: In total, 73 of 3120 (2.3%) AML cases were classified tAML. tAML patients were younger than non-tAML patients at diagnosis (median age 66 vs 71 years, P = 0.000). Median overall survival was similar (6 months). Median latency to tAML was 82 months, with two incidence peaks at 1–4 and 7–8 years. In total, 59 of 73 patients had recorded cancers, the most frequent being non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, 32.2%) and breast cancer (16.9%). In total, 532 of 3120 (14.1%) additional AML cases had ≥1 prior cancer (confirmation of chemoradiotherapy unavailable). tAML incidence increased (0.0/100 000 persons in 2003, 0.5/100 000 persons in 2014), as did the incidence of non-tAML with previous cancer (0.8/100 000 persons in 2003, 1.1/100 000 persons in 2014). In total, 101 of 4435 (2.3%) MDS cases were classified tMDS. Although tMDS incidence fluctuated (range 0–0.4/100 000 persons/year), the incidence of non-tMDS with prior cancer rose (1.4/100 000 persons in 2003, 1.9/100 000 persons in 2014). Compared to tAML, the tMDS cohort was older (median age 70 vs 66 years, P = 0.007). Median latency to tMDS was 42.5 months. NHL was also the most common cancer preceding tMDS, but the second most common cancer was myeloma (17.8%). In total, 1287 of 5061 (20.3%) non-tMDS patients had a prior cancer. Conclusions: The burden of tAML/tMDS in Victoria is likely to be underestimated. Linkage between VCR and clinical registries is needed to provide more accurate insights.
- therapy-related acute myeloid leukaemia
- therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome
- therapy-related myeloid neoplasm