Biologic therapies have revolutionized the management of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD], but primary and secondary non-responses occur in a significant proportion of patients. Therapeutic drug monitoring [TDM] now has an established role in the treatment algorithm for managing secondary loss of response to anti-tumour necrosis factor [anti-TNF] agents during maintenance therapy. Data to support the use of TDM in the management of secondary loss of response to vedolizumab and ustekinumab are emerging. The potential to prevent primary non-response to biologic agents during induction is of equal, and potentially greater, clinical importance. Again, most data supporting the use of 'proactive' TDM during induction pertains to the use of anti-TNF agents, but signals of efficacy for the use of TDM during induction with other biologic classes are now appearing. This review aims to summarize data on the use of TDM during induction to prevent pharmacokinetic primary non-response to all three classes of biologic therapy currently available for the treatment of IBD.
- primary non-response
- therapeutic drug monitoring