The World Federation of ADHD International Consensus Statement: 208 Evidence-based conclusions about the disorder

Stephen V. Faraone, Tobias Banaschewski, David Coghill, Yi Zheng, Joseph Biederman, Mark A. Bellgrove, Jeffrey H. Newcorn, Martin Gignac, Nouf M. Al Saud, Iris Manor, Luis Augusto Rohde, Li Yang, Samuele Cortese, Doron Almagor, Mark A. Stein, Turki H. Albatti, Haya F. Aljoudi, Mohammed M.J. Alqahtani, Philip Asherson, Lukoye AtwoliSven Bölte, Jan K. Buitelaar, Cleo L. Crunelle, David Daley, Søren Dalsgaard, Manfred Döpfner, Stacey Espinet, Michael Fitzgerald, Barbara Franke, Manfred Gerlach, Jan Haavik, Catharina A. Hartman, Cynthia M. Hartung, Stephen P. Hinshaw, Pieter J. Hoekstra, Chris Hollis, Scott H. Kollins, J. J. Sandra Kooij, Jonna Kuntsi, Henrik Larsson, Tingyu Li, Jing Liu, Eugene Merzon, Gregory Mattingly, Paulo Mattos, Suzanne McCarthy, Amori Yee Mikami, Brooke S.G. Molina, Joel T. Nigg, Diane Purper-Ouakil, Olayinka O. Omigbodun, Guilherme V. Polanczyk, Yehuda Pollak, Alison S. Poulton, Ravi Philip Rajkumar, Andrew Reding, Andreas Reif, Katya Rubia, Julia Rucklidge, Marcel Romanos, J. Antoni Ramos-Quiroga, Arnt Schellekens, Anouk Scheres, Renata Schoeman, Julie B. Schweitzer, Henal Shah, Mary V. Solanto, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, César Soutullo, Hans Christoph Steinhausen, James M. Swanson, Anita Thapar, Gail Tripp, Geurt van de Glind, Wim van den Brink, Saskia Van der Oord, Andre Venter, Benedetto Vitiello, Susanne Walitza, Yufeng Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

530 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Misconceptions about ADHD stigmatize affected people, reduce credibility of providers, and prevent/delay treatment. To challenge misconceptions, we curated findings with strong evidence base. Methods: We reviewed studies with more than 2000 participants or meta-analyses from five or more studies or 2000 or more participants. We excluded meta-analyses that did not assess publication bias, except for meta-analyses of prevalence. For network meta-analyses we required comparison adjusted funnel plots. We excluded treatment studies with waiting-list or treatment as usual controls. From this literature, we extracted evidence-based assertions about the disorder. Results: We generated 208 empirically supported statements about ADHD. The status of the included statements as empirically supported is approved by 80 authors from 27 countries and 6 continents. The contents of the manuscript are endorsed by 366 people who have read this document and agree with its contents. Conclusions: Many findings in ADHD are supported by meta-analysis. These allow for firm statements about the nature, course, outcome causes, and treatments for disorders that are useful for reducing misconceptions and stigma.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)789-818
Number of pages30
JournalNeuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2021


  • ADHD
  • Brain
  • Course
  • Diagnosis
  • Genetics
  • Outcome
  • Treatment

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