The World Association against Infection in Orthopaedics and Trauma (WAIOT) procedures for Microbiological Sampling and Processing for Periprosthetic Joint Infections (PJIs) and other Implant-Related Infections

Lorenzo Drago, Pierangelo Clerici, Ilaria Morelli, Johari Ashok, Thami Benzakour, Svetlana Bozhkova, Chingiz Alizadeh, Hernán del Sel, Hemant K Sharma, Trisha Peel, Roberto Mattina, Carlo Luca Romanò

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review


While implant-related infections continue to play a relevant role in failure of implantable biomaterials in orthopaedic and trauma there is a lack of standardised microbiological procedures to identify the pathogen(s). The microbiological diagnosis of implant-related infections is challenging due to the following factors: the presence of bacterial biofilm(s), often associated with slow-growing microorganisms, low bacterial loads, previous antibiotic treatments and, possible intra-operative contamination. Therefore, diagnosis requires a specific set of procedures. Based on the Guidelines of the Italian Association of the Clinical Microbiologists (AMCLI), the World Association against Infection in Orthopaedics and Trauma has drafted the present document. This document includes guidance on the basic principles for sampling and processing for implant-related infections based on the most relevant literature. These procedures outline the main microbiological approaches, including sampling and processing methodologies for diagnostic assessment and confirmation of implant-related infections. Biofilm dislodgement techniques, incubation time and the role of molecular approaches are addressed in specific sections. The aim of this paper is to ensure a standardised approach to the main microbiological methods for implant-related infections, as well as to promote multidisciplinary collaboration between clinicians and microbiologists.
Original languageEnglish
Article number933
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2019

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