The workgroup emotional climate scale: theoretical development, empirical validation, and relationship with workgroup effectiveness

Xiao-Yu Liu, Charmine E.J. Härtel, James Jian Min Sun

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20 Citations (Scopus)


This article reports two studies aimed at developing a theory-based multidimensional measure of workgroup emotional climate (WEC) and exploring its relationship with workgroup effectiveness. In Study 1, a four-factor theory of WEC is derived from a review of the climate and emotions literature, followed by the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods to operationalize the model and develop a survey measure. An initial sample of 396 workgroup members provided the data for the exploratory factor analysis and item response theory analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of data from another sample of 334 workgroup members further confirmed the proposed structure. In Study 2, multilevel CFA of data collected from 840 workgroup members from 148 workgroups provided construct, consensual, and discriminant validity. We also examined the relationship between WEC and workgroup effectiveness. The resulting four-factor, 16-item measure demonstrated robust psychometric properties, with acceptable levels of reliability and validity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)626-663
Number of pages38
JournalGroup and Organization Management
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • climate
  • emotion
  • measurement development
  • workgroup effectiveness
  • workgroup emotional climate

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