The vicarious effects of hate: inter-ethnic hate crime in the neighborhood and its consequences for exclusion and anticipated rejection

Chloe Keel, Rebecca Wickes, Kathryn Benier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Hate crime victimization is harmful for victims and those who share the victim’s identity. It may also be harmful for the broader community. Yet, few studies focus on the ripple effects of hate. This paper examines how secondary exposure to hate crime in the neighborhood, through witnessing or hearing about hate crime, influences individual perceptions of ethnic minorities, which in turn can harm social relations. Findings reveal that those who witness hate crime express greater anger towards ethnic minorities. Those who rely on second-hand information about hate crime in the community are more likely to anticipate rejection on the basis of their ethnicity, hold negative attitudes towards ethnic migrants and intend to take actions to exclude new migrants from their communities when compared to those who do not have such information. These findings have implications for community cohesion in multi-ethnic neighborhoods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1283-1303
Number of pages21
JournalEthnic and Racial Studies
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 19 May 2022


  • anticipated rejection
  • community cohesion
  • Hate crime
  • social exclusion
  • vicarious effects
  • victimization

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