The ventricular residence time distribution derived from 4D flow particle tracing: a novel marker of myocardial dysfunction

Benedict T. Costello, Mateen Qadri, Bradley Price, Stavroula Papapostolou, Mark Thompson, James L. Hare, Andre La Gerche, Murray Rudman, Andrew J. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


4D flow cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging allows visualisation of blood flow in the cardiac chambers and great vessels. Post processing of the flow data allows determination of the residence time distribution (RTD), a novel means of assessing ventricular function, potentially providing additional information beyond ejection fraction. We evaluated the RTD measurement of efficiency of left and right ventricular (LV and RV) blood flow. 16 volunteers and 16 patients with systolic dysfunction (LVEF < 50%) underwent CMR studies including 4D flow. The RTDs were created computationally by seeding virtual ‘particles’ at the inlet plane in customised post-processing software, moving these particles with the measured blood velocity, recording and counting how many exited per unit of time. The efficiency of ventricular flow was determined from the RTDs based on the time constant (RTDc = − 1/B) of the exponential decay. The RTDc was compared to ejection fraction, T1 mapping and global longitudinal strain (GLS). There was a significant difference between groups in LV RTDc (healthy volunteers 1.2 ± 0.13 vs systolic dysfunction 2.2 ± 0.80, p < 0.001, C-statistic = 1.0) and RV RTDc (1.5 ± 0.15 vs 2.0 ± 0.57, p = 0.013, C-statistic = 0.799). The LV RTDc correlated significantly with LVEF (R = − 0.84, P < 0.001) and the RV RTDc had significant correlation with RVEF (R = − 0.402, p = 0.008). The correlation between LV RTDc and LVEF was similar to GLS and LVEF (0.926, p < 0.001). The ventricular residence time correlates with ejection fraction and can distinguish normal from abnormal systolic function. Further assessment of this method of assessment of chamber function is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1927–1935
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2018


  • 4D flow
  • Cardiac magnetic resonance
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy

Cite this