The uncertain future of protected lands and waters

Rachel E. Golden Kroner, Siyu Qin, Carly N. Cook, Roopa Krithivasan, Shalynn M. Pack, Oscar D. Bonilla, Kerry Anne Cort-Kansinally, Bruno Coutinho, Mingmin Feng, Maria Isabel Martínez Garcia, Yifan He, Chris J. Kennedy, Clotilde Lebreton, Juan Carlos Ledezma, Thomas E. Lovejoy, David A. Luther, Yohan Parmanand, César Augusto Ruíz-Agudelo, Edgard Yerena, Vilisa Morón ZambranoMichael B. Mascia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Protected areas are intended to safeguard biodiversity in perpetuity, yet evidence suggests that widespread legal changes undermine protected area durability and efficacy. We documented these legal changes-protected area downgrading, downsizing, and degazettement (PADDD) events-in the United States and Amazonian countries and compiled available data globally. Governments of the United States and Amazonian countries enacted 269 and 440 PADDD events, respectively. Between 1892 and 2018, 73 countries enacted 3749 PADDD events, removing 519,857 square kilometers from protection and tempering regulations in an additional 1,659,972 square kilometers; 78% of events were enacted since 2000. Most PADDD events (62%) are associated with industrial-scale resource extraction and development, suggesting that PADDD may compromise biodiversity conservation objectives. Strategic policy responses are needed to address PADDD and sustain effective protected areas.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)881-886
Number of pages6
Issue number6443
Publication statusPublished - 31 May 2019

Cite this

Golden Kroner, R. E., Qin, S., Cook, C. N., Krithivasan, R., Pack, S. M., Bonilla, O. D., Cort-Kansinally, K. A., Coutinho, B., Feng, M., Garcia, M. I. M., He, Y., Kennedy, C. J., Lebreton, C., Ledezma, J. C., Lovejoy, T. E., Luther, D. A., Parmanand, Y., Ruíz-Agudelo, C. A., Yerena, E., ... Mascia, M. B. (2019). The uncertain future of protected lands and waters. Science, 364(6443), 881-886.