The Tower of London Test: Validation and standardization for pediatric populations

Peter Anderson, Vicki Anderson, Genevieve Lajoie

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

157 Citations (Scopus)


The Tower of London Test is a measure of planning and problem solving. Variations in administration and scoring and lack of normative data has led to difficulties in interpreting performances on the task. This study standardizes administration and scoring procedures and provides normative data on children's performances. A sample of 376 children, aged 7.0 to 13.11 years were administered the test. Analyses identified age trends, with older children exhibiting shorter solution times and more items correct. Number of failed attempts was not clearly related to age. Significant correlations were detected between Tower of London and other measures of executive function. Results indicate ongoing development of executive function, with greatest increments between the ages of 7 and 9 and again between 11 and 12 years, consistent with theoretical perspectives from developmental psychology and neurophysiological evidence showing maturation within the anterior regions of the cerebral cortex around these ages.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)54-65
Number of pages12
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1996
Externally publishedYes

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