The synthesis of hydroxyapatite from artificially grown Red Sea hydrozoan coral for antimicrobacterial drug delivery system applications

Ipek Karacan, Nathan Cox, Annette Dowd, Razi Vago, Bruce Milthorpe, Sophie Cazalbou, Besim Ben-Nissan

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7 Citations (Scopus)


The hydrozoan Millepora dichotoma (MD) is a typical Red Sea species containing a porous skeleton in the form of aragonite crystalline calcium carbonate. Due to environmental considerations, the artificial production of coralline species under controlled conditions is pertinent and underway. Artificially grown MD was used as a raw material for the production of calcium phosphate, mainly hydroxyapatite bioceramics, to be used in the drug delivery systems as a drug carrier or in the tissue engineering such as bone graft. DTA-TGA, XRD, FT-IR, Raman, and SEM analysis were carried out to analyze both unconverted and converted artificial corals. Hydrothermally converted coral fine powders were loaded with gentamicin (Gm) antibiotic, and the drug-loaded particles were analyzed by SEM. Unconverted coral was mainly aragonite, while hydrothermally treated coral was completely converted to hydroxyapatite. Hydrothermally treated coral was showing agglomerated nodules up to 1-μm size consisting of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite platelets in the size range of less than 100 nm. The general macropore size of the coral was found to be appropriate for osteoid growth, which is 100 to 600 μm range. These artificially grown corals can be easily produced and used for bone growth and repair and other biomedical applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)399-407
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the Australian Ceramic Society
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Artificial coral
  • Hydrothermal conversion
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Millepora dichotoma

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