The surface coating mechanism of polluted concrete by Candida ethanolica induced calcium carbonate mineralization

Leong Sing Wong, Ahmed Farid Mahmoud Oweida, Sih Ying Kong, Dawood Muhammad Iqbal, Praveen Regunathan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


This paper documents the laboratory evidence on the mineralization mechanism of Candida ethanolica for surface coating of concrete with polluted sand as fine aggregate. C. ethanolica is largely discovered as a waste microbe in the beer industry. The tendency of the microbe to cultivate easily and induce bio-crystals with the capability to encapsulate heavy metals; has made it mesmerizing to be explored in a sustainable manner for concrete surface coating technology. Under the influence of the optimal initial pH, calcium oxide concentration, and fungal cell concentration in the liquid growth media; the treated concrete cubes were experimented to have an average 28-day compressive strength of 32.20 MPa. Such strength value is 6.27% higher when compared to that of the untreated concrete cubes at the same curing time. Overall, the findings revealed that the fungal bio-crystals have a promising prospect to be applied as a concrete surface coating.

Original languageEnglish
Article number119482
Number of pages10
JournalConstruction and Building Materials
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2020


  • Bio-crystals
  • Candida ethanolica
  • Compressive strength
  • Heavy metals
  • Mineralization mechanism

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