The Subplate

A Potential Driver of Cortical Folding?

Shreya Rana, Rosita Shishegar, Sebastian Quezada, Leigh Johnston, David Walker, Mary Tolcos

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

In many species of Mammalia, the surface of the brain develops from a smooth structure to one with many fissures and folds, allowing for vast expansion of the surface area of the cortex. The importance of understanding what drives cortical folding extends beyond mere curiosity, as conditions such as preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and fetal alcohol syndrome are associated with impaired folding in the infant and child. Despite being a key feature of brain development, the mechanisms driving cortical folding remain largely unknown. In this review we discuss the possible role of the subplate, a developmentally transient compartment, in directing region-dependent development leading to sulcal and gyral formation. We discuss the development of the subplate in species with lissencephalic and gyrencephalic cortices, the characteristics of the cells found in the subplate, and the possible presence of molecular cues that guide axons into, and out of, the overlying and multilayered cortex before the appearance of definitive cortical folds. An understanding of what drives cortical folding is likely to help in understanding the origins of abnormal folding patterns in clinical pathologies.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalCerebral Cortex
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 4 Feb 2019

Cite this

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title = "The Subplate: A Potential Driver of Cortical Folding?",
abstract = "In many species of Mammalia, the surface of the brain develops from a smooth structure to one with many fissures and folds, allowing for vast expansion of the surface area of the cortex. The importance of understanding what drives cortical folding extends beyond mere curiosity, as conditions such as preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and fetal alcohol syndrome are associated with impaired folding in the infant and child. Despite being a key feature of brain development, the mechanisms driving cortical folding remain largely unknown. In this review we discuss the possible role of the subplate, a developmentally transient compartment, in directing region-dependent development leading to sulcal and gyral formation. We discuss the development of the subplate in species with lissencephalic and gyrencephalic cortices, the characteristics of the cells found in the subplate, and the possible presence of molecular cues that guide axons into, and out of, the overlying and multilayered cortex before the appearance of definitive cortical folds. An understanding of what drives cortical folding is likely to help in understanding the origins of abnormal folding patterns in clinical pathologies.",
author = "Shreya Rana and Rosita Shishegar and Sebastian Quezada and Leigh Johnston and David Walker and Mary Tolcos",
year = "2019",
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language = "English",
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The Subplate : A Potential Driver of Cortical Folding? / Rana, Shreya; Shishegar, Rosita; Quezada, Sebastian; Johnston, Leigh; Walker, David; Tolcos, Mary.

In: Cerebral Cortex, 04.02.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Subplate

T2 - A Potential Driver of Cortical Folding?

AU - Rana, Shreya

AU - Shishegar, Rosita

AU - Quezada, Sebastian

AU - Johnston, Leigh

AU - Walker, David

AU - Tolcos, Mary

PY - 2019/2/4

Y1 - 2019/2/4

N2 - In many species of Mammalia, the surface of the brain develops from a smooth structure to one with many fissures and folds, allowing for vast expansion of the surface area of the cortex. The importance of understanding what drives cortical folding extends beyond mere curiosity, as conditions such as preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and fetal alcohol syndrome are associated with impaired folding in the infant and child. Despite being a key feature of brain development, the mechanisms driving cortical folding remain largely unknown. In this review we discuss the possible role of the subplate, a developmentally transient compartment, in directing region-dependent development leading to sulcal and gyral formation. We discuss the development of the subplate in species with lissencephalic and gyrencephalic cortices, the characteristics of the cells found in the subplate, and the possible presence of molecular cues that guide axons into, and out of, the overlying and multilayered cortex before the appearance of definitive cortical folds. An understanding of what drives cortical folding is likely to help in understanding the origins of abnormal folding patterns in clinical pathologies.

AB - In many species of Mammalia, the surface of the brain develops from a smooth structure to one with many fissures and folds, allowing for vast expansion of the surface area of the cortex. The importance of understanding what drives cortical folding extends beyond mere curiosity, as conditions such as preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and fetal alcohol syndrome are associated with impaired folding in the infant and child. Despite being a key feature of brain development, the mechanisms driving cortical folding remain largely unknown. In this review we discuss the possible role of the subplate, a developmentally transient compartment, in directing region-dependent development leading to sulcal and gyral formation. We discuss the development of the subplate in species with lissencephalic and gyrencephalic cortices, the characteristics of the cells found in the subplate, and the possible presence of molecular cues that guide axons into, and out of, the overlying and multilayered cortex before the appearance of definitive cortical folds. An understanding of what drives cortical folding is likely to help in understanding the origins of abnormal folding patterns in clinical pathologies.

U2 - 10.1093/cercor/bhz003

DO - 10.1093/cercor/bhz003

M3 - Review Article

JO - Cerebral Cortex

JF - Cerebral Cortex

SN - 1047-3211

ER -