The slagging propensity of Zn-rich scrap tyre ash in reducing environments consisting of CO and CO2 and its promotion of the slagging of Si-rich coal ash

Miriam Issac, Lian Zhang

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This study includes a comprehensive investigation on the ash slagging characteristics of zinc (Zn)-rich tyre ash and its interaction with silica (Si)-rich coal ash blended at different ratios in a 5% CO in CO 2 reducing environment. Such an environment is expected to occur near the burner in a combustor, as well as serves as a fundamental study on the slagging propensity upon the effect of CO, which is a principal reducing agent in a gasifier. An approach consisting of experimental studies using modified inclined plane (M-IP) methodology, advanced analytical techniques including the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were used to elaborate the slagging propensities of the single and blended ashes. Furthermore, the fate of Zn within tyre ash and its potential implications on the slagging properties were evaluated. Tyre ash easily melts to liquid slag upon increasing temperature compared to the silica-rich coal ash. Zinc does not evaporate but rather remains within tyre slag mostly as a hemimorphite (Zn 4 (Si 2 O 7 )(OH))-like coordination structure attributing to the characteristic blue colour of tyre slag. The low ionic potential value of 2.7 for Zn 2 + is characteristic of basic ions that have a greater tendency to depolymerise the Si-rich ash slag matrix and acts as a fluxing agent in ash slag. Moreover, it was proven that Zn 2 + plays a synergistic role with Ca 2 + in enhancing the flowability of the Si-rich slag remarkably. Furthermore, for the pure tyre slag, Zn was found to preferentially deposit at the corundum (Al 2 O 3 ) substrate interface and even penetrate/react with the porous corundum, causing a strong corrosion on the substrate. However, blending of tyre ash with coal ash alleviates this problem by a preferred scavenging of Zn into the entire Si matrix, which in turn protects the corundum plate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3939-3947
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of the Combustion Institute
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Promotional effect of ZnO
  • Synergy of ZnO and CaO on ash slagging
  • Tyre ash-coal ash blends
  • Waste scrap tyre ash slagging

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