The secretory phenotypes of envenomed cells: insights into venom cytotoxicity

Y. Yong, J. J. Hiu, M. K.K. Yap

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (Book)Researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Snake envenomation is listed as Category A Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTD) by World Health Organization, indicates a severe public health problem. The global figures for envenomation cases are estimated to be more than 1.8 million annually. Even if the affected victims survive the envenomation, they might suffer from permanent morbidity due to local envenomation. One of the most prominent local envenomation is dermonecrosis. Dermonecrosis is a pathophysiological outcome of envenomation that often causes disability in the victims due to surgical amputations, deformities, contracture, and chronic ulceration. The key venom toxins associated with this local symptom are mainly attributed to substantial levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic toxins as well as their possible synergistic actions. Despite so, the severity of the local tissue damage is based on macroscopic observation of the bite areas. Furthermore, limited knowledge is known about the key biomarkers involved in the pathogenesis of dermonecrosis. The current immunotherapy with antivenom is also ineffective against dermonecrosis. These local effects eventually end up as sequelae. There is also a global shortage of toxins-targeted therapeutics attributed to inadequate knowledge of the actual molecular mechanisms of cytotoxicity. This chapter discusses the characterization of secretory phenotypes of dermonecrosis as an advanced tool to indicate its severity and pathogenesis in envenomation. Altogether, the secretory phenotypes of envenomed cells and tissues represent the precise characteristics of dermonecrosis caused by venom toxins.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSecretory Proteins
EditorsRossen Donev
Place of PublicationUnited States
PublisherAcademic Press
Number of pages38
ISBN (Print)9780443158209
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Publication series

NameAdvances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
ISSN (Print)1876-1623
ISSN (Electronic)1876-1631


  • Cytotoxin
  • Dermonecrosis
  • L-amino acid oxidase
  • Phospholipase A
  • Secretome
  • Snake venom metalloproteinase

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