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Mitochondrial DNA replication is critical for maintaining mtDNA copy number to generate sufficient cellular energy that is required for development and for functional cells. In early development, mtDNA copy number is strictly regulated at different stages, and, as a result, the establishment of the mtDNA set point is required for sequential cell lineage commitment. The failure to establish the mtDNA set point results in incomplete differentiation or embryonic arrest. The regulation of mtDNA copy number during differentiation is closely associated with cellular gene expression, especially with the pluripotency network, and DNA methylation profiles. The findings from cancer research highlight the relationship between mitochondrial function, mtDNA copy number and DNA methylation in regulating differentiation. DNA methylation at exon 2 of DNA polymerase gamma subunit A (POLGA) has been shown to be a key factor, which can be modulated to change the mtDNA copy number and cell fate of differentiating and tumour cells. The present review combines multi-disciplinary data from mitochondria, development, epigenetics and tumorigenesis, which could provide novel insights for further research, especially for developmental disorders and cancers.
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