The role of saliva in gonorrhoea and chlamydia transmission to extragenital sites among men who have sex with men

new insights into transmission

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Gonorrhoea and chlamydia cases have been rising among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) over the last decade. The majority of cases are extragenital and occur at the oropharynx and anorectum. The aim of this narrative review was to review the risk factors and mode of transmission for gonorrhoea and chlamydia at the oropharynx and anorectum among MSM. Results and discussion: New evidence suggests that oropharyngeal gonorrhoea can be transmitted by kissing in addition to through the established route of condomless oral sex; and anorectal gonorrhoea can be acquired when saliva is used as a lubricant for anal sex and rimming in addition to the established route of condomless penile-anal sex in MSM. In contrast, condomless penile-anal sex remains the major route for chlamydia transmission. Conclusions: Substantial transmission of gonorrhoea may occur with practices other than the established routes of condomless oral and/or anal sex and hence condoms may not be effective in preventing gonorrhoea transmission to extragenital sites. In contrast, condoms are effective for chlamydia control because it is mainly transmitted through condomless penile-anal sex. Novel interventions for gonorrhoea that reduce the risk of transmission at extragenital site are required.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere25354
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of the International AIDS Society
Volume22
Issue numberS6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019

Keywords

  • anal
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • control
  • kissing
  • men who have sex with men
  • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
  • saliva
  • sexual behaviours
  • sexual practices
  • sexually transmitted diseases
  • sexually transmitted infections
  • throat
  • transmission

Cite this

@article{841147dc0ed243e689099782cd2c9564,
title = "The role of saliva in gonorrhoea and chlamydia transmission to extragenital sites among men who have sex with men: new insights into transmission",
abstract = "Introduction: Gonorrhoea and chlamydia cases have been rising among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) over the last decade. The majority of cases are extragenital and occur at the oropharynx and anorectum. The aim of this narrative review was to review the risk factors and mode of transmission for gonorrhoea and chlamydia at the oropharynx and anorectum among MSM. Results and discussion: New evidence suggests that oropharyngeal gonorrhoea can be transmitted by kissing in addition to through the established route of condomless oral sex; and anorectal gonorrhoea can be acquired when saliva is used as a lubricant for anal sex and rimming in addition to the established route of condomless penile-anal sex in MSM. In contrast, condomless penile-anal sex remains the major route for chlamydia transmission. Conclusions: Substantial transmission of gonorrhoea may occur with practices other than the established routes of condomless oral and/or anal sex and hence condoms may not be effective in preventing gonorrhoea transmission to extragenital sites. In contrast, condoms are effective for chlamydia control because it is mainly transmitted through condomless penile-anal sex. Novel interventions for gonorrhoea that reduce the risk of transmission at extragenital site are required.",
keywords = "anal, Chlamydia trachomatis, control, kissing, men who have sex with men, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, saliva, sexual behaviours, sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases, sexually transmitted infections, throat, transmission",
author = "Chow, {Eric P.F.} and Fairley, {Christopher K.}",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1002/jia2.25354",
language = "English",
volume = "22",
journal = "Journal of the International AIDS Society",
issn = "1758-2652",
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number = "S6",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - The role of saliva in gonorrhoea and chlamydia transmission to extragenital sites among men who have sex with men

T2 - new insights into transmission

AU - Chow, Eric P.F.

AU - Fairley, Christopher K.

PY - 2019/8/1

Y1 - 2019/8/1

N2 - Introduction: Gonorrhoea and chlamydia cases have been rising among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) over the last decade. The majority of cases are extragenital and occur at the oropharynx and anorectum. The aim of this narrative review was to review the risk factors and mode of transmission for gonorrhoea and chlamydia at the oropharynx and anorectum among MSM. Results and discussion: New evidence suggests that oropharyngeal gonorrhoea can be transmitted by kissing in addition to through the established route of condomless oral sex; and anorectal gonorrhoea can be acquired when saliva is used as a lubricant for anal sex and rimming in addition to the established route of condomless penile-anal sex in MSM. In contrast, condomless penile-anal sex remains the major route for chlamydia transmission. Conclusions: Substantial transmission of gonorrhoea may occur with practices other than the established routes of condomless oral and/or anal sex and hence condoms may not be effective in preventing gonorrhoea transmission to extragenital sites. In contrast, condoms are effective for chlamydia control because it is mainly transmitted through condomless penile-anal sex. Novel interventions for gonorrhoea that reduce the risk of transmission at extragenital site are required.

AB - Introduction: Gonorrhoea and chlamydia cases have been rising among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men (MSM) over the last decade. The majority of cases are extragenital and occur at the oropharynx and anorectum. The aim of this narrative review was to review the risk factors and mode of transmission for gonorrhoea and chlamydia at the oropharynx and anorectum among MSM. Results and discussion: New evidence suggests that oropharyngeal gonorrhoea can be transmitted by kissing in addition to through the established route of condomless oral sex; and anorectal gonorrhoea can be acquired when saliva is used as a lubricant for anal sex and rimming in addition to the established route of condomless penile-anal sex in MSM. In contrast, condomless penile-anal sex remains the major route for chlamydia transmission. Conclusions: Substantial transmission of gonorrhoea may occur with practices other than the established routes of condomless oral and/or anal sex and hence condoms may not be effective in preventing gonorrhoea transmission to extragenital sites. In contrast, condoms are effective for chlamydia control because it is mainly transmitted through condomless penile-anal sex. Novel interventions for gonorrhoea that reduce the risk of transmission at extragenital site are required.

KW - anal

KW - Chlamydia trachomatis

KW - control

KW - kissing

KW - men who have sex with men

KW - Neisseria gonorrhoeae

KW - saliva

KW - sexual behaviours

KW - sexual practices

KW - sexually transmitted diseases

KW - sexually transmitted infections

KW - throat

KW - transmission

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U2 - 10.1002/jia2.25354

DO - 10.1002/jia2.25354

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JO - Journal of the International AIDS Society

JF - Journal of the International AIDS Society

SN - 1758-2652

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