The role of ethnic diversity in sustainable environmental growth: new evidence across different income regions

Sefa Awaworyi Churchill, Kris Ivanovski, Mita Bhattacharya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


We examine the relationship between ethnic diversity and environmental quality, proxied by carbon dioxide ((Formula presented.)) emissions. Ethnic diversity is captured using indices of ethnic fractionalization. Adopting a supply-demand framework which introduces a model for economic growth, we find that ethnic fractionalization reduces (Formula presented.) emissions. The negative effect of ethnic diversity on (Formula presented.) emissions is also consistent across middle and low-income countries as well as high-income countries. However, results suggest that ethnic diversity has a negative effect on growth in middle and low-income countries, but a positive effect on growth in high-income countries. Our findings prove robust to alternative estimation methods.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)398-408
Number of pages11
JournalApplied Economics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2019


  • CO emissions
  • environmental quality
  • Ethnic diversity
  • pollution

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