Despite current standards of care aimed at achieving targets for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, blood pressure and glycaemia, dyslipidaemic patients remain at high residual risk of vascular events. Atherogenic dyslipidaemia, specifically elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, often with elevated apolipoprotein B and non-HDL cholesterol, is common in patients with established cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity or metabolic syndrome and is associated with macrovascular and microvascular residual risk. The Residual Risk Reduction Initiative (R3I) was established to address this important issue. This position paper aims to highlight evidence that atherogenic dyslipidaemia contributes to residual macrovascular risk and microvascular complications despite current standards of care for dyslipidaemia and diabetes, and to recommend therapeutic intervention for reducing this, supported by evidence and expert consensus. Lifestyle modification is an important first step. Additionally, pharmacotherapy is often required. Adding niacin, a fibrate or omega-3 fatty acids to statin therapy improves achievement of all lipid risk factors. Outcomes studies are evaluating whether these strategies translate to greater clinical benefit than statin therapy alone. In conclusion, the R3i highlights the need to address with lifestyle and/or pharmacotherapy the high level of residual vascular risk among dyslipidaemic patients who are treated in accordance with current standards of care.
- Residual risk