The relative roles of advanced glycation, oxidation and aldose reductase inhibition in the development of experimental diabetic nephropathy in the Sprague-Dawley rat

T. Soulis-Liparota, M. E. Cooper, M. Dunlop, G. Jerums

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Advanced glycation is an important pathogenic mechanism in the development of diabetic complications. However, other biochemical processes, such as the polyol pathway or lipid and protein oxidation which can interact with advanced glycation can also yield tissue fluorescence and may also be implicated in the genesis of diabetic microangiopathy. Aminoguanidine is an inhibitor of advanced glycation, but it is not known if all of its effects are mediated by this mechanism. The present study explores the relative contributions of aldose reductase, oxidative stress and advanced glycation on the development of aortic and renal fluorescence and urinary albumin excretion in streptozotocin diabetic rats. The study groups included non-diabetic (control), streptozotocin diabetic rats and diabetic rats receiving aminoguanidine, the anti-oxidants butylated hydroxytoluene and probucol and the aldose reductase inhibitor, ponalrestat. Serial measurements of glycaemic control and urinary albumin excretion were performed every 8 weeks. At 32 weeks, animals were killed, tissues removed and collagen extracted for measurement of fluorescence. Diabetic rats had increased fluorescence in aorta, glomeruli and renal tubules. Aminoguanidine prevented an increase in fluorescence at all three sites suggesting that diabetes-related tissue fluorescence is predominantly due to advanced glycation. Ponalrestat retarded fluorescence in aorta only and butylated hydroxytoluene attenuated fluorescence at the renal sites but not in the aorta. Diabetic rats had increased renal cortical sorbitol levels. Ponalrestat normalized renal cortical sorbitol levels but aminoguanidine did not affect this parameter. The only agent to decrease plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was butylated hydroxytoluene. Diabetic rats developed albuminuria over the 32-week period. This increase in urinary albumin excretion was only attenuated significantly by aminoguanidine therapy, but not by probucol or ponalrestat. The effects of butylated hydroxytoluene on albuminuria were intermediate between aminoguanidine-treated and untreated diabetic rats. The failure of either antioxidants or aldose reductase inhibition to reproduce the renal effects of aminoguanidine suggest that aminoguanidine may act predominantly via inhibition of advanced glycation and not via the alternative biochemical processes evaluated in this study.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)387-394
Number of pages8
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 1995
Externally publishedYes


  • Advanced glycation
  • aldose reductase inhibition
  • aminoguanidine
  • butylated hydroxytoluene
  • diabetic nephropathy
  • oxidation
  • ponalrestat
  • probucol

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