The relative importance of real-time in-cab and external feedback in managing fatigue in real-world commercial transport operations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Real-time driver monitoring systems represent a solution to address key behavioral risks as they occur, particularly distraction and fatigue. The efficacy of these systems in real-world settings is largely unknown. This article has three objectives: (1) to document the incidence and duration of fatigue in real-world commercial truck-driving operations, (2) to determine the reduction, if any, in the incidence of fatigue episodes associated with providing feedback, and (3) to tease apart the relative contribution of in-cab warnings from 24/7 monitoring and feedback to employers. Methods: Data collected from a commercially available in-vehicle camera-based driver monitoring system installed in a commercial truck fleet operating in Australia were analyzed. The real-time driver monitoring system makes continuous assessments of driver drowsiness based on eyelid position and other factors. Data were collected in a baseline period where no feedback was provided to drivers. Real-time feedback to drivers then occurred via in-cab auditory and haptic warnings, which were further enhanced by direct feedback by company management when fatigue events were detected by external 24/7 monitors. Fatigue incidence rates and their timing of occurrence across the three time periods were compared. Results: Relative to no feedback being provided to drivers when fatigue events were detected, in-cab warnings resulted in a 66% reduction in fatigue events, with a 95% reduction achieved by the real-time provision of direct feedback in addition to in-cab warnings (p < 0.01). With feedback, fatigue events were shorter in duration a d occurred later in the trip, and fewer drivers had more than one verified fatigue event per trip. Conclusions: That the provision of feedback to the company on driver fatigue events in real time provides greater benefit than feedback to the driver alone has implications for companies seeking to mitigate risks associated with fatigue. Having fewer fatigue events is likely a reflection of the device itself and the accompanying safety culture of the company in terms of how the information is used. Data were analysed on a per-truck trip basis, and the findings are indicative of fatigue events in a large-scale commercial transport fleet. Future research ought to account for individual driver performance, which was not possible with the available data in this retrospective analysis. Evidence that real-time driver monitoring feedback is effective in reducing fatigue events is invaluable in the development of fleet safety policies, and of future national policy and vehicle safety regulations. Implications for automotive driver monitoring are discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)S71-S78
Number of pages8
JournalTraffic Injury Prevention
Volume18
Issue numberS1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Advanced driver assistance system (ADAS)
  • auditory
  • driver monitoring system (DMS)
  • fatigue
  • haptic warning

Cite this

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title = "The relative importance of real-time in-cab and external feedback in managing fatigue in real-world commercial transport operations",
abstract = "Objective: Real-time driver monitoring systems represent a solution to address key behavioral risks as they occur, particularly distraction and fatigue. The efficacy of these systems in real-world settings is largely unknown. This article has three objectives: (1) to document the incidence and duration of fatigue in real-world commercial truck-driving operations, (2) to determine the reduction, if any, in the incidence of fatigue episodes associated with providing feedback, and (3) to tease apart the relative contribution of in-cab warnings from 24/7 monitoring and feedback to employers. Methods: Data collected from a commercially available in-vehicle camera-based driver monitoring system installed in a commercial truck fleet operating in Australia were analyzed. The real-time driver monitoring system makes continuous assessments of driver drowsiness based on eyelid position and other factors. Data were collected in a baseline period where no feedback was provided to drivers. Real-time feedback to drivers then occurred via in-cab auditory and haptic warnings, which were further enhanced by direct feedback by company management when fatigue events were detected by external 24/7 monitors. Fatigue incidence rates and their timing of occurrence across the three time periods were compared. Results: Relative to no feedback being provided to drivers when fatigue events were detected, in-cab warnings resulted in a 66{\%} reduction in fatigue events, with a 95{\%} reduction achieved by the real-time provision of direct feedback in addition to in-cab warnings (p < 0.01). With feedback, fatigue events were shorter in duration a d occurred later in the trip, and fewer drivers had more than one verified fatigue event per trip. Conclusions: That the provision of feedback to the company on driver fatigue events in real time provides greater benefit than feedback to the driver alone has implications for companies seeking to mitigate risks associated with fatigue. Having fewer fatigue events is likely a reflection of the device itself and the accompanying safety culture of the company in terms of how the information is used. Data were analysed on a per-truck trip basis, and the findings are indicative of fatigue events in a large-scale commercial transport fleet. Future research ought to account for individual driver performance, which was not possible with the available data in this retrospective analysis. Evidence that real-time driver monitoring feedback is effective in reducing fatigue events is invaluable in the development of fleet safety policies, and of future national policy and vehicle safety regulations. Implications for automotive driver monitoring are discussed.",
keywords = "Advanced driver assistance system (ADAS), auditory, driver monitoring system (DMS), fatigue, haptic warning",
author = "Michael Fitzharris and Sara Liu and Stephens, {Amanda N.} and Lenn{\'e}, {Michael G.}",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1080/15389588.2017.1306855",
language = "English",
volume = "18",
pages = "S71--S78",
journal = "Traffic Injury Prevention",
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The relative importance of real-time in-cab and external feedback in managing fatigue in real-world commercial transport operations. / Fitzharris, Michael; Liu, Sara; Stephens, Amanda N.; Lenné, Michael G.

In: Traffic Injury Prevention, Vol. 18, No. S1, 2017, p. S71-S78.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The relative importance of real-time in-cab and external feedback in managing fatigue in real-world commercial transport operations

AU - Fitzharris, Michael

AU - Liu, Sara

AU - Stephens, Amanda N.

AU - Lenné, Michael G.

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Objective: Real-time driver monitoring systems represent a solution to address key behavioral risks as they occur, particularly distraction and fatigue. The efficacy of these systems in real-world settings is largely unknown. This article has three objectives: (1) to document the incidence and duration of fatigue in real-world commercial truck-driving operations, (2) to determine the reduction, if any, in the incidence of fatigue episodes associated with providing feedback, and (3) to tease apart the relative contribution of in-cab warnings from 24/7 monitoring and feedback to employers. Methods: Data collected from a commercially available in-vehicle camera-based driver monitoring system installed in a commercial truck fleet operating in Australia were analyzed. The real-time driver monitoring system makes continuous assessments of driver drowsiness based on eyelid position and other factors. Data were collected in a baseline period where no feedback was provided to drivers. Real-time feedback to drivers then occurred via in-cab auditory and haptic warnings, which were further enhanced by direct feedback by company management when fatigue events were detected by external 24/7 monitors. Fatigue incidence rates and their timing of occurrence across the three time periods were compared. Results: Relative to no feedback being provided to drivers when fatigue events were detected, in-cab warnings resulted in a 66% reduction in fatigue events, with a 95% reduction achieved by the real-time provision of direct feedback in addition to in-cab warnings (p < 0.01). With feedback, fatigue events were shorter in duration a d occurred later in the trip, and fewer drivers had more than one verified fatigue event per trip. Conclusions: That the provision of feedback to the company on driver fatigue events in real time provides greater benefit than feedback to the driver alone has implications for companies seeking to mitigate risks associated with fatigue. Having fewer fatigue events is likely a reflection of the device itself and the accompanying safety culture of the company in terms of how the information is used. Data were analysed on a per-truck trip basis, and the findings are indicative of fatigue events in a large-scale commercial transport fleet. Future research ought to account for individual driver performance, which was not possible with the available data in this retrospective analysis. Evidence that real-time driver monitoring feedback is effective in reducing fatigue events is invaluable in the development of fleet safety policies, and of future national policy and vehicle safety regulations. Implications for automotive driver monitoring are discussed.

AB - Objective: Real-time driver monitoring systems represent a solution to address key behavioral risks as they occur, particularly distraction and fatigue. The efficacy of these systems in real-world settings is largely unknown. This article has three objectives: (1) to document the incidence and duration of fatigue in real-world commercial truck-driving operations, (2) to determine the reduction, if any, in the incidence of fatigue episodes associated with providing feedback, and (3) to tease apart the relative contribution of in-cab warnings from 24/7 monitoring and feedback to employers. Methods: Data collected from a commercially available in-vehicle camera-based driver monitoring system installed in a commercial truck fleet operating in Australia were analyzed. The real-time driver monitoring system makes continuous assessments of driver drowsiness based on eyelid position and other factors. Data were collected in a baseline period where no feedback was provided to drivers. Real-time feedback to drivers then occurred via in-cab auditory and haptic warnings, which were further enhanced by direct feedback by company management when fatigue events were detected by external 24/7 monitors. Fatigue incidence rates and their timing of occurrence across the three time periods were compared. Results: Relative to no feedback being provided to drivers when fatigue events were detected, in-cab warnings resulted in a 66% reduction in fatigue events, with a 95% reduction achieved by the real-time provision of direct feedback in addition to in-cab warnings (p < 0.01). With feedback, fatigue events were shorter in duration a d occurred later in the trip, and fewer drivers had more than one verified fatigue event per trip. Conclusions: That the provision of feedback to the company on driver fatigue events in real time provides greater benefit than feedback to the driver alone has implications for companies seeking to mitigate risks associated with fatigue. Having fewer fatigue events is likely a reflection of the device itself and the accompanying safety culture of the company in terms of how the information is used. Data were analysed on a per-truck trip basis, and the findings are indicative of fatigue events in a large-scale commercial transport fleet. Future research ought to account for individual driver performance, which was not possible with the available data in this retrospective analysis. Evidence that real-time driver monitoring feedback is effective in reducing fatigue events is invaluable in the development of fleet safety policies, and of future national policy and vehicle safety regulations. Implications for automotive driver monitoring are discussed.

KW - Advanced driver assistance system (ADAS)

KW - auditory

KW - driver monitoring system (DMS)

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