Fetal growth restriction (FGR)is a complex disorder of human pregnancy that leads to poor health outcomes in offspring. These range from immediate risks such as perinatal morbidity and stillbirths, to long-term complications including severe neurodevelopmental problems. Despite its relatively high global prevalence, the aetiology of FGR and its complications is not currently well understood. We now know that serotonin (5-HT)is synthesised in the placenta and is crucial for early fetal forebrain development in mice. However, the contribution of a disrupted placental 5-HT synthetic pathway to the pathophysiology of placental insufficiency in FGR and its significant fetal neurodevelopmental complications are unclear.