Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is linked to obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Recently, studies have found that preptin enhances insulin secretion in rats and might play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and PCOS in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between PCOS, glucose tolerance status, and serum preptin level.Methods: This study was conducted in a university-affiliated hospital from October 2010 to August 2011. Anthropometric parameters, sex hormone concentrations, blood pressure, lipid profiles, fasting glucose and insulin, 2-h blood glucose after glucose overloaded (2hOGTT), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA 1 c), homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), and serum preptin of the samples were analyzed.Results: Sixty-three PCOS patients, including 33 women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 30 women with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and 63 patients without PCOS, including 35 women with NGT and 28 women with IGT were recruited in this study. For patients with and without PCOS, women with IGT had higher serum preptin levels compared with women with NGT. Preptin levels in PCOS patients were higher compared with patients without PCOS, but the difference was not significant. Fasting serum preptin levels correlated positively with TG, SBP, DBP, FBG, 2hOGTT, and HOMA-IR in simple regression analysis of the pooled data. While in multiple stepwise regression analysis, preptin levels were independently related with glucose tolerance, but not with PCOS.Conclusions: Irrespective of PCOS status, women with IGT had higher serum preptin levels compared with women with NGT. Preptin levels are related with glucose tolerance status, but not with PCOS status.