The relationship between air pollution and all-cause mortality in singapore

Andrew Fu Ho Wah, Huili Zheng, Kang Hao Cheong, Wee Liang En, Pin Pin Pek, Xinxing Zhao, Geoffrey G. Morgan, Arul Earnest, Benjamin Yong Qiang Tan, Yih Yng Ng, Ling Li Foo, Marcus Eng Ong Hock

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12 Citations (Scopus)


Ambient air pollution is a risk factor for both acute and chronic diseases and poses serious health threats to the world population. We aim to study the relationship between air pollution and all-cause mortality in the context of a city-state exposed to the Southeast Asian haze problem. The primary exposure was ambient air pollution, as measured by the Pollutants Standards Index (PSI). The outcome of interest was all-cause mortality from 2010-2015. A time-stratified case-crossover design was performed. A conditional Poisson regression model, including environmental variables such as PSI, temperature, wind speed, and rainfall, was fitted to the daily count of deaths to estimate the incidence rate ratio (IRR) of mortality per unit increase in PSI, accounting for overdispersion and autocorrelation. To account for intermediate exposure effects (maximum lag of 10 days), a distributed lag non-linear model was used. There were 105,504 deaths during the study period. Increment in PSI was significantly associated with an increased risk of mortality. The adjusted IRR of mortality per the 10-unit increase in PSI was 1.01 (95%CI = 1.00-1.01). The lag effect was stronger when PSI was in the unhealthy range compared to the good and moderate ranges. At lag = 7 days, PSI appeared to have an adverse effect on mortality, although the effect was not significant. These findings provide evidence on the general health hazard of exposure to air pollution and can potentially guide public health policies in the region.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9
Number of pages10
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2020


  • Air pollution
  • Environmental epidemiology
  • Haze
  • Healthcare
  • Mortality
  • Particulate metter
  • Public health
  • Southeast Asia
  • Transboundary

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