The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and liver enzymes in overweight or obese adults: Cross-sectional and interventional outcomes

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Abstract

Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, there is limited and inconsistent data on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on liver function. Hepatic enzymes have been used as surrogate markers for NAFLD and have been associated with metabolic syndrome. We examined the relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in 120 drug-naïve individuals with no history of liver disease. In addition, the effect of vitamin D supplementation (100,000 loading dose of cholecalciferol followed by 4000IU daily for 16 weeks) on hepatic enzymes was investigated in a subgroup of 54 vitamin D-deficient overweight or obese individuals (28 randomised to cholecalciferol and 26 to placebo). Hepatic enzymes, anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, M value) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured before and after the intervention. In the cross-sectional study, levels of GGT and ALT were higher in men compared to women (both p = 0.001). There were no significant differences in GGT, ALT and ALP between vitamin D categories (25(OH)D<. 25. nmol/L, 25-50. nmol/L, and >50. nmol/L) and no relationships were found between the three enzymes and 25(OH)D before and after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, WHR, and insulin sensitivity (all p. >0.5). In the randomised trial, 25(OH)D concentrations increased in the vitamin D group (mean change 57.0. ±. 21.3. nmol/L) compared to the placebo group (mean change 1.9. ±. 15.1. nmol/L). Mean changes in GGT, ALT and ALP were not significantly different between vitamin D and placebo groups (all p. >0.2). Change in 25(OH)D concentration was not correlated with changes in GGT, ALT and ALP before and after adjustments for age and sex (all p. >0.1).In summary, 25(OH)D concentrations were not related to hepatic enzymes in drug-naive adults with no history of liver disease, and vitamin D supplementation had no effect on the serum levels of hepatic enzymes in vitamin D-deficient and overweight or obese, otherwise healthy individuals. Hence, vitamin D supplementation is unlikely to prevent incident NAFLD.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)193-199
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Volume177
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2018

Keywords

  • 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)
  • Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
  • Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
  • Insulin resistance
  • Obesity
  • γ-Glutamyl transferase (GGT)

Cite this

@article{a13b556e5e0b4ffcb3206c10b9aa924e,
title = "The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and liver enzymes in overweight or obese adults: Cross-sectional and interventional outcomes",
abstract = "Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, there is limited and inconsistent data on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on liver function. Hepatic enzymes have been used as surrogate markers for NAFLD and have been associated with metabolic syndrome. We examined the relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in 120 drug-na{\"i}ve individuals with no history of liver disease. In addition, the effect of vitamin D supplementation (100,000 loading dose of cholecalciferol followed by 4000IU daily for 16 weeks) on hepatic enzymes was investigated in a subgroup of 54 vitamin D-deficient overweight or obese individuals (28 randomised to cholecalciferol and 26 to placebo). Hepatic enzymes, anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, M value) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured before and after the intervention. In the cross-sectional study, levels of GGT and ALT were higher in men compared to women (both p = 0.001). There were no significant differences in GGT, ALT and ALP between vitamin D categories (25(OH)D<. 25. nmol/L, 25-50. nmol/L, and >50. nmol/L) and no relationships were found between the three enzymes and 25(OH)D before and after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, WHR, and insulin sensitivity (all p. >0.5). In the randomised trial, 25(OH)D concentrations increased in the vitamin D group (mean change 57.0. ±. 21.3. nmol/L) compared to the placebo group (mean change 1.9. ±. 15.1. nmol/L). Mean changes in GGT, ALT and ALP were not significantly different between vitamin D and placebo groups (all p. >0.2). Change in 25(OH)D concentration was not correlated with changes in GGT, ALT and ALP before and after adjustments for age and sex (all p. >0.1).In summary, 25(OH)D concentrations were not related to hepatic enzymes in drug-naive adults with no history of liver disease, and vitamin D supplementation had no effect on the serum levels of hepatic enzymes in vitamin D-deficient and overweight or obese, otherwise healthy individuals. Hence, vitamin D supplementation is unlikely to prevent incident NAFLD.",
keywords = "25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Insulin resistance, Obesity, γ-Glutamyl transferase (GGT)",
author = "Negar Naderpoor and Aya Mousa and {de Courten}, Maximilian and Robert Scragg and {de Courten}, Barbora",
year = "2018",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.09.009",
language = "English",
volume = "177",
pages = "193--199",
journal = "Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology",
issn = "0960-0760",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - The relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and liver enzymes in overweight or obese adults

T2 - Cross-sectional and interventional outcomes

AU - Naderpoor, Negar

AU - Mousa, Aya

AU - de Courten, Maximilian

AU - Scragg, Robert

AU - de Courten, Barbora

PY - 2018/3

Y1 - 2018/3

N2 - Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, there is limited and inconsistent data on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on liver function. Hepatic enzymes have been used as surrogate markers for NAFLD and have been associated with metabolic syndrome. We examined the relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in 120 drug-naïve individuals with no history of liver disease. In addition, the effect of vitamin D supplementation (100,000 loading dose of cholecalciferol followed by 4000IU daily for 16 weeks) on hepatic enzymes was investigated in a subgroup of 54 vitamin D-deficient overweight or obese individuals (28 randomised to cholecalciferol and 26 to placebo). Hepatic enzymes, anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, M value) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured before and after the intervention. In the cross-sectional study, levels of GGT and ALT were higher in men compared to women (both p = 0.001). There were no significant differences in GGT, ALT and ALP between vitamin D categories (25(OH)D<. 25. nmol/L, 25-50. nmol/L, and >50. nmol/L) and no relationships were found between the three enzymes and 25(OH)D before and after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, WHR, and insulin sensitivity (all p. >0.5). In the randomised trial, 25(OH)D concentrations increased in the vitamin D group (mean change 57.0. ±. 21.3. nmol/L) compared to the placebo group (mean change 1.9. ±. 15.1. nmol/L). Mean changes in GGT, ALT and ALP were not significantly different between vitamin D and placebo groups (all p. >0.2). Change in 25(OH)D concentration was not correlated with changes in GGT, ALT and ALP before and after adjustments for age and sex (all p. >0.1).In summary, 25(OH)D concentrations were not related to hepatic enzymes in drug-naive adults with no history of liver disease, and vitamin D supplementation had no effect on the serum levels of hepatic enzymes in vitamin D-deficient and overweight or obese, otherwise healthy individuals. Hence, vitamin D supplementation is unlikely to prevent incident NAFLD.

AB - Vitamin D deficiency is prevalent in individuals with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. However, there is limited and inconsistent data on the effect of vitamin D supplementation on liver function. Hepatic enzymes have been used as surrogate markers for NAFLD and have been associated with metabolic syndrome. We examined the relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in 120 drug-naïve individuals with no history of liver disease. In addition, the effect of vitamin D supplementation (100,000 loading dose of cholecalciferol followed by 4000IU daily for 16 weeks) on hepatic enzymes was investigated in a subgroup of 54 vitamin D-deficient overweight or obese individuals (28 randomised to cholecalciferol and 26 to placebo). Hepatic enzymes, anthropometric parameters, lipid profile, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp, M value) and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were measured before and after the intervention. In the cross-sectional study, levels of GGT and ALT were higher in men compared to women (both p = 0.001). There were no significant differences in GGT, ALT and ALP between vitamin D categories (25(OH)D<. 25. nmol/L, 25-50. nmol/L, and >50. nmol/L) and no relationships were found between the three enzymes and 25(OH)D before and after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, WHR, and insulin sensitivity (all p. >0.5). In the randomised trial, 25(OH)D concentrations increased in the vitamin D group (mean change 57.0. ±. 21.3. nmol/L) compared to the placebo group (mean change 1.9. ±. 15.1. nmol/L). Mean changes in GGT, ALT and ALP were not significantly different between vitamin D and placebo groups (all p. >0.2). Change in 25(OH)D concentration was not correlated with changes in GGT, ALT and ALP before and after adjustments for age and sex (all p. >0.1).In summary, 25(OH)D concentrations were not related to hepatic enzymes in drug-naive adults with no history of liver disease, and vitamin D supplementation had no effect on the serum levels of hepatic enzymes in vitamin D-deficient and overweight or obese, otherwise healthy individuals. Hence, vitamin D supplementation is unlikely to prevent incident NAFLD.

KW - 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)

KW - Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)

KW - Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

KW - Insulin resistance

KW - Obesity

KW - γ-Glutamyl transferase (GGT)

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85029773549&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.09.009

DO - 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.09.009

M3 - Article

VL - 177

SP - 193

EP - 199

JO - Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

JF - Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

SN - 0960-0760

ER -