The Hippo pathway is a highly conserved signalling pathway that regulates multiple biological processes, including organ size control and cell fate. Since its discovery, genetic and biochemical studies have elucidated several key signalling steps important for pathway activation and deactivation. In recent years, technical advances in microscopy and genome modification have allowed new insights into Hippo signalling to be revealed. These studies have highlighted that the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling behaviour of the Hippo pathway transcriptional co-activators Yorkie, YAP and TAZ is far more dynamic than previously appreciated, and YAP and TAZ are also regulated by liquid-liquid phase separation. Here, we review our current understanding of Yorkie, YAP and TAZ regulation, with a focus on recent microscopy-based studies.
- Hippo pathway