The prevalence and risk predictors of cesarean scar defect at 6 weeks postpartum in Shanghai, China: A prospective cohort study

Hongjie Pan, Ming Zeng, Tianyi Xu, Dong Li, Ben W.J. Mol, Jing Sun, Jian Zhang

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Introduction: The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and predictors of cesarean scar defect (CSD) at 6 weeks postpartum in Shanghai, China. Material and methods: Women scheduled to receive a cesarean section (CS) were recruited from a university hospital. Surgery-related factors, pregnancy complications, routine examinations, perioperative medications, and physical signs were collected and transvaginal ultrasonography was performed to assess the presence of a CSD at 6 weeks postpartum. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the predictors for CSD. Results: A CSD was detected in 223 of 514 women (43.4%, 95% CI 39.1%-47.7%) by transvaginal ultrasonography. Of women with normal temperature (T < 37.5°C, CSD prevalence 33.9%, 95% CI 28.4%-39.5%), women with postpartum fever (T ≥ 38°C, CSD 44.1%, 95% CI 31.0%-57.1%), and women who were subfebrile in the postpartum (37.5 ≤ T ≤ 38.0°C, CSD 58.3%, 95% CI 50.9%-65.7%), the latter two had significantly increased risk for CSD (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.7, 95% CI 1.3-5.2 and aOR 3.3, 95% CI 2.1-5.3, respectively). In comparison to single-dose antibiotic administration (CSD 49.0%, 95% CI 43.8%-54.3%), multi-dose antibiotic administration (CSD 31.1%, 95% CI 23.8%-38.3%) had a protective effect (aOR 0.4, 95% CI 0.3-0.7). Postpartum fever, intrapartum infection, emergency CS, and cervical dilation ≥ 3 cm were found to be the main predictors of multi-dose antibiotics management. Low platelet count postpartum (defined as ≤ 150 × 10 9 /L) and high fibrinogen pre-CS (defined as ≥ 4.5 g/L) increased CSD risk (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.1-3.6 and 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of CSD in the Chinese population is high enough to be a concern. Perioperative infection and hypercoagulability should be considered CSD predictors, and multi-dose antibiotics have a protective effect.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)413-422
Number of pages10
JournalActa Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • cesarean scar defect
  • cesarean section
  • fibrinogen
  • infection
  • platelet
  • transvaginal ultrasonography

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