Objective: The extent to which obsessive-compulsive and related disorders (OCRDs) are impulsive, compulsive or both requires further investigation. We investigated the existence of compulsive, impulsive, and compulsive-impulsive clusters in an online non-clinical sample and in which groups DSM-5 OCRDs and other related psychopathological symptoms are best placed. Methods: 774 adult participants completed online questionnaires including the Cambridge-Chicago Compulsivity Trait Scale (CHI-T), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), and a series of DSM-5 OCRDs symptom severity and other psychopathological measures. We used K-means cluster analysis using CHIT and BIS responses to test three and four factor solutions. Next, we investigated whether different OCRDs and other psychopathological symptoms predicted cluster membership using a multinomial regression model. Results: The best solution identified one “healthy” and three “clinical” clusters (i.e. one predominantly “compulsive” group, one predominantly “impulsive” group, and one “mixed - “compulsive and impulsive group”). A multinomial regression model found obsessive-compulsive, body dysmorphic, and schizotypal symptoms to be associated with the “mixed” and the “compulsive” clusters, and hoarding and emotional symptoms to be related, on a trend level, to the “impulsive” cluster. Additional analysis showed cognitive-perceptual schizotypal symptoms to be associated with the “mixed” but not the “compulsive” group. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that obsessive-compulsive disorder; body dysmorphic disorder and schizotypal symptoms can be mapped across the “compulsive” and “mixed” clusters of the compulsive-impulsive spectrum. Although there was a trend towards hoarding disorder symptoms being associated with the “impulsive” group, trichotillomania and skin picking disorder symptoms did not clearly fit to the demarcated clusters.
- Body dysmorphic disorder
- Hoarding disorder
- Obsessive-compulsive disorder