The nutrition-gut microbiome-physiology axis and allergic diseases

Craig McKenzie, Jian Tan, Laurence Macia, Charles R. Mackay

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

53 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Dietary and bacterial metabolites influence immune responses. This raises the question whether the increased incidence of allergies, asthma, some autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, and others might relate to intake of unhealthy foods, and the decreased intake of dietary fiber. In recent years, new knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underpinning a ‘diet-gut microbiota-physiology axis’ has emerged to substantiate this idea. Fiber is fermented to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate, butyrate, and propionate. These metabolites bind ‘metabolite-sensing’ G-protein-coupled receptors such as GPR43, GPR41, and GPR109A. These receptors play fundamental roles in the promotion of gut homeostasis and the regulation of inflammatory responses. For instance, these receptors and their metabolites influence Treg biology, epithelial integrity, gut homeostasis, DC biology, and IgA antibody responses. The SCFAs also influence gene transcription in many cells and tissues, through their inhibition of histone deacetylase expression or function. Contained in this mix is the gut microbiome, as commensal bacteria in the gut have the necessary enzymes to digest dietary fiber to SCFAs, and dysbiosis in the gut may affect the production of SCFAs and their distribution to tissues throughout the body. SCFAs can epigenetically modify DNA, and so may be one mechanism to account for diseases with a ‘developmental origin’, whereby in utero or post-natal exposure to environmental factors (such as nutrition of the mother) may account for disease later in life. If the nutrition-gut microbiome-physiology axis does underpin at least some of the Western lifestyle influence on asthma and allergies, then there is tremendous scope to correct this with healthy foodstuffs, probiotics, and prebiotics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)277-295
Number of pages19
JournalImmunological Reviews
Volume278
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017

Keywords

  • allergy
  • asthma
  • autoimmunity
  • inflammation
  • inflammatory bowel disease
  • lipid mediators

Cite this

@article{b2236433875a4c2b8c3c87ce3c68fbec,
title = "The nutrition-gut microbiome-physiology axis and allergic diseases",
abstract = "Dietary and bacterial metabolites influence immune responses. This raises the question whether the increased incidence of allergies, asthma, some autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, and others might relate to intake of unhealthy foods, and the decreased intake of dietary fiber. In recent years, new knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underpinning a ‘diet-gut microbiota-physiology axis’ has emerged to substantiate this idea. Fiber is fermented to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate, butyrate, and propionate. These metabolites bind ‘metabolite-sensing’ G-protein-coupled receptors such as GPR43, GPR41, and GPR109A. These receptors play fundamental roles in the promotion of gut homeostasis and the regulation of inflammatory responses. For instance, these receptors and their metabolites influence Treg biology, epithelial integrity, gut homeostasis, DC biology, and IgA antibody responses. The SCFAs also influence gene transcription in many cells and tissues, through their inhibition of histone deacetylase expression or function. Contained in this mix is the gut microbiome, as commensal bacteria in the gut have the necessary enzymes to digest dietary fiber to SCFAs, and dysbiosis in the gut may affect the production of SCFAs and their distribution to tissues throughout the body. SCFAs can epigenetically modify DNA, and so may be one mechanism to account for diseases with a ‘developmental origin’, whereby in utero or post-natal exposure to environmental factors (such as nutrition of the mother) may account for disease later in life. If the nutrition-gut microbiome-physiology axis does underpin at least some of the Western lifestyle influence on asthma and allergies, then there is tremendous scope to correct this with healthy foodstuffs, probiotics, and prebiotics.",
keywords = "allergy, asthma, autoimmunity, inflammation, inflammatory bowel disease, lipid mediators",
author = "Craig McKenzie and Jian Tan and Laurence Macia and Mackay, {Charles R.}",
year = "2017",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/imr.12556",
language = "English",
volume = "278",
pages = "277--295",
journal = "Immunological Reviews",
issn = "0105-2896",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "1",

}

The nutrition-gut microbiome-physiology axis and allergic diseases. / McKenzie, Craig; Tan, Jian; Macia, Laurence; Mackay, Charles R.

In: Immunological Reviews, Vol. 278, No. 1, 01.07.2017, p. 277-295.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - The nutrition-gut microbiome-physiology axis and allergic diseases

AU - McKenzie, Craig

AU - Tan, Jian

AU - Macia, Laurence

AU - Mackay, Charles R.

PY - 2017/7/1

Y1 - 2017/7/1

N2 - Dietary and bacterial metabolites influence immune responses. This raises the question whether the increased incidence of allergies, asthma, some autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, and others might relate to intake of unhealthy foods, and the decreased intake of dietary fiber. In recent years, new knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underpinning a ‘diet-gut microbiota-physiology axis’ has emerged to substantiate this idea. Fiber is fermented to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate, butyrate, and propionate. These metabolites bind ‘metabolite-sensing’ G-protein-coupled receptors such as GPR43, GPR41, and GPR109A. These receptors play fundamental roles in the promotion of gut homeostasis and the regulation of inflammatory responses. For instance, these receptors and their metabolites influence Treg biology, epithelial integrity, gut homeostasis, DC biology, and IgA antibody responses. The SCFAs also influence gene transcription in many cells and tissues, through their inhibition of histone deacetylase expression or function. Contained in this mix is the gut microbiome, as commensal bacteria in the gut have the necessary enzymes to digest dietary fiber to SCFAs, and dysbiosis in the gut may affect the production of SCFAs and their distribution to tissues throughout the body. SCFAs can epigenetically modify DNA, and so may be one mechanism to account for diseases with a ‘developmental origin’, whereby in utero or post-natal exposure to environmental factors (such as nutrition of the mother) may account for disease later in life. If the nutrition-gut microbiome-physiology axis does underpin at least some of the Western lifestyle influence on asthma and allergies, then there is tremendous scope to correct this with healthy foodstuffs, probiotics, and prebiotics.

AB - Dietary and bacterial metabolites influence immune responses. This raises the question whether the increased incidence of allergies, asthma, some autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular disease, and others might relate to intake of unhealthy foods, and the decreased intake of dietary fiber. In recent years, new knowledge on the molecular mechanisms underpinning a ‘diet-gut microbiota-physiology axis’ has emerged to substantiate this idea. Fiber is fermented to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly acetate, butyrate, and propionate. These metabolites bind ‘metabolite-sensing’ G-protein-coupled receptors such as GPR43, GPR41, and GPR109A. These receptors play fundamental roles in the promotion of gut homeostasis and the regulation of inflammatory responses. For instance, these receptors and their metabolites influence Treg biology, epithelial integrity, gut homeostasis, DC biology, and IgA antibody responses. The SCFAs also influence gene transcription in many cells and tissues, through their inhibition of histone deacetylase expression or function. Contained in this mix is the gut microbiome, as commensal bacteria in the gut have the necessary enzymes to digest dietary fiber to SCFAs, and dysbiosis in the gut may affect the production of SCFAs and their distribution to tissues throughout the body. SCFAs can epigenetically modify DNA, and so may be one mechanism to account for diseases with a ‘developmental origin’, whereby in utero or post-natal exposure to environmental factors (such as nutrition of the mother) may account for disease later in life. If the nutrition-gut microbiome-physiology axis does underpin at least some of the Western lifestyle influence on asthma and allergies, then there is tremendous scope to correct this with healthy foodstuffs, probiotics, and prebiotics.

KW - allergy

KW - asthma

KW - autoimmunity

KW - inflammation

KW - inflammatory bowel disease

KW - lipid mediators

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85021349174&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/imr.12556

DO - 10.1111/imr.12556

M3 - Review Article

VL - 278

SP - 277

EP - 295

JO - Immunological Reviews

JF - Immunological Reviews

SN - 0105-2896

IS - 1

ER -