The New Zealand development and trial of mental health nursing clinical indicators - A bicultural study

Anthony P. O'Brien, Anthony J. O'Brien, Derrylea J. Hardy, Erina Morrison-Ngatai, Cadeyrn J. Gaskin, Julie M. Boddy, Neil McNulty, Tom Ryan, Georgina Skews

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13 Citations (Scopus)


This paper describes the development and validation of bicultural clinical indicators that measure achievement of mental health nursing practice standards in New Zealand (ANZMCHN, 1995, Standards of practice for mental health nursing in New Zealand. ANZCMHN, Greenacres). A four-stage research design was utilised including focus groups, Delphi surveys, a pilot, and a national field study, with mental health nurses and consumers as participants. During the national field study, consumer files (n=327) from 11 District Health Boards, and registered nurses (n=422) completed an attitude questionnaire regarding the regularity of specific nursing and service activities. Results revealed a variation in the mean occurrence of the clinical indicators in consumer case notes of 18.5-89.9%. Five factors with good internal consistency, encompassing domains of mental health nursing required for best practice, were derived from analysis of the questionnaire. This study presents a research framework for developing culturally and clinically valid, reliable measures of clinical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)853-861
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Nursing Studies
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Bicultural clinical indicators
  • Mental health nursing
  • Professional practice questionnaire
  • Quality audit
  • Standards of practice

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