Hemispherectomy (more recently referred to as hemispherotomy or callosotomy) is a complex surgical technique designed to disconnect one cerebral hemisphere from the other. Originally utilized in the 1920s to treat gliomas, hemispherectomy techniques have been refined considerably since then. Modern hemispherectomy procedures have been used to effectively treat intractable epileptic seizures, and multiple different techniques have been used to achieve cerebral resectioning, including anatomical hemispherectomy, functional hemispherectomy, and current hemispherotomy techniques. These methods are characterized by the amount of brain tissue physically removed: Anatomical hemispherectomy refers to the near-total excision of a cerebral hemisphere, functional hemispherectomy is more precise in that the majority of the affected hemisphere is functionally disconnected but left physically intact, and hemispherotomy specifically targets the corpus callosum such that minimal brain matter is excised. Four common goals have been consistently recognized throughout the history of the procedure as necessary for a successful hemispherectomy surgery: the internal disruption of the internal capsule and corona radiata, resection of the medial temporal structures, transventricular corpus callosotomy, and disruption of the frontal horizontal fibers.
|Title of host publication||Traumatic Brain Injury|
|Subtitle of host publication||Rehabilitation, Treatment, and Case Management, Fourth Edition|
|Editors||Mark J. Ashley, David A. Hovda|
|Number of pages||10|
|Publication status||Published - 1 Jan 2017|